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Apartheid

Category: Policy/Strategy
Date: 1948
Date To: 1994
Sub Category:Policy/Strategy (South Africa)
Location:Republic of South Africa
Summary Information:
The term 'apartheid' (meaning 'separateness' in Afrikaans) refers to the racial segregation policy of the government of the Republic of South Africa from 1948-1994. Though racial discrimination existed in law and practice in South Africa well before apartheid was introduced, the policy saw the systematic implementation of a suite of laws designed to entrench white legal, social, economic and political superiority. It also instituted a race classification system of 'black', 'coloured', 'Indian' and 'white' that governed the lives of South Africans.
Detailed Information:
The policy underwent several changes throughout this period. These included its extension in 1951 with the Bantu Authorities Act and other related legislation which prescribed the so-called 'homelands' system. This system of black homelands and nominally independent black governments saw black people considered citizens of certain 'homelands' and so considered 'migrants' who could be deported from the white-ruled Republic of South Africa. The then-government envisaged that the only blacks residing in cities would be those employed by white employers (see Giannandrea).

Apartheid also oversaw the forced removal of people from their land, laws forbidding interracial marriage and a pass system whereby non-white South Africans would need a pass to enter areas designated 'white-only'. It is estimated that 3.5 million people were removed from their land during apartheid (see Dorsett).

Opposition to apartheid, both domestic and international, continued throughout its operation. The policy started to be dismantled from 1990, and was abolished completely with the election of the country's first democratically-elected government in 1994 (see generally Worden).
Outcomes:
The new Africa National Congress (ANC) government passed the country’s new Constitution in 1996, which entrenched equality and other citizenship rights. In addition, the new government embarked on a program of reversing the affects of apartheid, including through a program of land restitution and policies to combat continuing economic inequality (for example, see Black Economic Empowerment and the Employment Equity Act 1998 below).

Related Entries

Agreement
  • Richtersveld Community Land Settlement
  • Royal Bafokeng Nation and Impala Platinum Joint Venture Agreement
  • District Six Land Settlement
  • Makuleke Community Land Settlement
  • Anglo Platinum, Anooraq Resources Corporation and Mvelaphanda Resources Ltd Black Economic Empowerment Transaction
  • DELETE
  • Organisation
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa
  • Commission on Restitution of Land Rights
  • Land Claims Court
  • Department of Land Affairs (South Africa)
  • Legislation
  • Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996
  • Restitution of Land Rights Act 1994
  • Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act, 2003 (South Africa)
  • Interim Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1994
  • Land Reform (Labour Tenants) Act, 1996 (South Africa)
  • Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, 2002 (South Africa)
  • Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Regulations, 2004 (South Africa)
  • Employment Equity Act 1998 (South Africa)
  • National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act 2003 (South Africa)
  • People
  • Royal Bafokeng Nation
  • Makuleke Community
  • Riemvasmaak Community
  • Case Law
  • Alexkor Limited v The Richtersveld Community and Others Case CCT19/03
  • Policy/Strategy
  • Black Economic Empowerment
  • Riemvasmaak Community Land Settlement
  • South African Land Reform Programme
  • Broad-Based Socio-Economic Empowerment Charter for the South African Mining Industry
  • Wine-BEE Industry Transformation Charter and Scorecard
  • Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Transformation Charter for Agriculture
  • Financial Sector Charter on Black Economic Empowerment
  • Charter for the South African Petroleum and Liquid Fuels Industry
  • Tourism BEE Industry Transformation Charter and Scorecard
  • Construction Sector Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Charter
  • Draft Black Economic Empowerment Charter for the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Sector

  • References

    Book
    Nigel Worden (1994) The Making of Modern South Africa (Blackwell Publishing)
    Journal Article
    Heather Giannandrea (Spring 2005) Towards a Definition of Betterment in South African Land Restitution Law 63(2) University of Toronto Faculty of Law Review
    Shaunnagh Dorsett Indigenous Law Bulletin (1999) Making amends for past injustice: restitution of land rights in South Africa

    Glossary

    Policy/Strategy (South Africa)

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