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Treaty 3

Category: Agreement
Binomial Name: Canada
Date: 3 October 1873
Sub Category:Treaty (Canada)
Location:Lower Fort Garry, Manitoba, Canada
Subject Matter:Land Settlement
Summary Information:
Detailed Information:
Treaty No 3 was signed on 3 October 1873 at the North-West Angle of the Lake of the Woods by representatives of the Crown and the Saulteaux and Lac Seul tribes of the Ojibbeway Indians.

The Treaty covered areas 'commencing at a point on the Pigeon River route where the international boundary line between the Territories of Great Britain and the United States intersects the height of land separating the waters running to Lake Superior from those flowing to Lake Winnipeg; thence northerly, westerly and easterly along the height of land aforesaid, following its sinuosities, whatever their course may be, to the point at which the said height of land meets the summit of the watershed from which the streams flow to Lake Nepigon; thence northerly and westerly, or whatever may be its course, along the ridge separating the waters of the Nepigon and the Winnipeg to the height of land dividing the waters of the Albany and the Winnipeg; thence westerly and north-westerly along the height of land dividing the waters flowing to Hudson's Bay by the Albany or other rivers from those running to English River and the Winnipeg to a point on the said height of land bearing north forty-five degrees east from Fort Alexander, at the mouth of the Winnipeg; thence south forty-five degrees west to Fort Alexander, at the mouth of the Winnipeg; thence southerly along the eastern bank of the Winnipeg to the mouth of White Mouth River; thence southerly by the line described as in that part forming the eastern boundary of the tract surrendered by the Chippewa and Swampy Cree tribes of Indians to Her Majesty on the third of August, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one, namely, by White Mouth River to White Mouth Lake, and thence on a line having the general bearing of White Mouth River to the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude; thence by the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the Lake of the Woods, and from thence by the international boundary line to the place beginning.'

The terms of the Treaty required the Indian parties to 'cede, release, surrender and yield up to the Government of the Dominion of Canada for Her Majesty the Queen and Her successors forever, all their rights, titles and privileges whatsoever', and to conduct and behave themselves as loyal subjects of the Queen, to abide by and obey the law and to maintain peace and good order between themselves and the settlers.

In return for this cession, the Crown agreed:
to set aside land up to one square mile for each family in the tribe,
to build schools within the reserves,
to permit hunting and fishing on land surrendered to the Crown,
to pay each person five dollars per head,
to pay a salary of 25 dollars to each chief.

Furthermore, the treaty required that:
due compensation should be paid if any land is to be appropriated for public works,
1500 dollars should be expended on nets and ammunition for the tribes, and
'to any band of the said Indians who are now actually cultivating the soil or who shall hereafter commence to cultivate the land, that is to say: two hoes for every family actually cultivating, also one spade per family as aforesaid, one plough for every ten families as aforesaid, five harrows for every twenty families as aforesaid, one scythe for every family as aforesaid, and also one axe and one cross-cut saw, one hand-saw, one pit-saw, the necessary files, one grind-stone, one auger for each band, and also for each Chief for the use of his band one chest of ordinary carpenter's tools; also for each band enough of wheat, barley, potatoes and oats to plant the land actually broken up for cultivation by such band; also for each band one yoke of oxen, one bull and four cows; all the aforesaid articles to be given once for all for the encouragement of the practice of agriculture among the Indians'.

Related Entries

  • Memorandum of Agreement by 'Half-Breeds' of Rainy River
  • Organisation
  • Government of Canada
  • People
  • Ojibwa Indians - Signatory

  • References

    General Reference
    Transcribed From: Roger Duhamel, F.R.S.C. Queen's Printer And Controller Of Stationery Ottawa (1966) Treaty No. 3
    Wayne E. Daugherty, Treaties and Historical Research Centre, Research Branch, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (1986) Treaty Research Report: Treaty Three


    First Nations People of Canada | Treaty

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